The shape of the earth presents some trouble in positioning its surface features, as there is no point of reference from which to measure the relative positions of other points. henceforth, a network of imaginary lines is drawn on a map or a globe to locate various places. The spinning of the earth on its axis from west to the east provides two natural points of reference, i.e. North and South Poles. They form the basis for the geographical grid. A network of horizontal and vertical lines, which are called parallels of latitudes and the meridians of longitudes is drawn for the purpose of fixing the locations of different features.
Level lines are attracted corresponding to one another in the east-west heading. The line drawn halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole is known as the equator. It is the biggest circle and partitions the globe into equivalent parts. It is additionally called a great circle. All the different equals get more modest in size, with respect to their distance from the equator towards the shafts and separation the earth into two inconsistent parts, additionally alluded to as the little circles. These nonexistent lines running east-west are normally known as the equals of scope. The upward lines running north-south, join the two poles. They are known as the meridians of longitude. They are separated farthest at the equator and combine at a point at each post.